(Note: Mayan, Aztec, and Incan societies had their beginnings in Era 3 but became more prominent as civilizations in Era 4.) Analyze the civilizations and empires that emerged during this era, noting their political, economic, and social systems, and their changing interactions with the environment.
Analyze the innovations and social, political, and economic changes that occurred through the emergence of agrarian societies of Mesoamerica and Andean South America and the subsequent urbanization and trading economies that occurred in the region. (Grade 6)
W3.1 Classical Traditions and Major Empires in the Western Hemisphere
Describe empires and agrarian civilizations in Mesoamerica and South America. Civilizations and empires that emerged during this era were noted for their political, economic and social systems and their changing interactions with the environment and the agrarian civilizations that emerged in Mesoamerica and South America.
6 – W3.1.1 Analyze the role of environment in the development of early empires, referencing both useful environmental features and those that presented obstacles.
6 – W3.1.2 Explain the role of economics in shaping the development of early civilizations (trade routes and their significance – Inca Road, supply and demand for products).
6 – W3.1.3 Describe similarities and difference among Mayan, Aztec, and Incan societies, including economy, religion, and role and class structure.
6 – W3.1.4 Describe the regional struggles and changes in governmental systems among the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan Empires.
6 – W3.1.5 Construct a timeline of main events on the origin and development of early and classic ancient civilizations of the Western Hemisphere (Olmec, Mayan, Aztec, and Incan).
W3.1 Classical Traditions in Regions of the Eastern Hemisphere
Analyze classical civilizations and empires and their lasting impact on institutions, political thought, structures, technology and art forms that grew in India, China, the Mediterranean basin, Africa, and Southwest and Central Asia during this era.
7 – W3.1.1 Describe the characteristics that classical civilizations share (institutions, cultural styles, systems of thought that influenced neighboring peoples and have endured for several centuries).
7 – W3.1.2 Using historic and modern maps, locate three major empires of this era, describe their geographic characteristics including physical features and climates, and propose a generalization about the relationship between geographic characteristics and the development of early empires.
7– W3.1.3 Compare and contrast the defining characteristics of a city-state, civilization, and empire.
7 – W3.1.4 Assess the importance of Greek ideas about democracy and citizenship in the development of Western political thought and institutions.
7 – W3.1.5 Describe major achievements from, Mediterranean civilizations in the areas of art, architecture and culture; science, technology and mathematics; political life and ideas; philosophy and ethical beliefs; and military strategy.
7 – W3.1.6 Use historic and modern maps to locate and describe trade networks among empires in the classical era.
7 – W3.1.7 Use a case study to describe how trade integrated cultures and influenced the economy within empires (e.g., Phoenician and Greek networks).
7 – W3.1.8 Describe the role of state authority, military power, taxation systems, and institutions of coerced labor, including slavery, in building and maintaining empires (e.g., Greek city-states and the Roman Empire).
7 – W3.1.9 Describe the significance of legal codes, belief systems, written languages and communications in the development of large regional empires.
7 – W3.1.10 Create a time line that illustrates the rise and fall of classical empires during the classical period.
W3.2 Growth and Development of World Regions
Explain how world religions or belief systems of Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism and Islam grew and their significance. (Islam is included here even though it came after 300 C.E./A.D.)
Six of the world’s major faiths and ethical systems emerged establishing institutions, systems of thought, and cultural styles that would influence neighboring peoples and endure for centuries.
7 – W3.2.1 Identify and describe the beliefs of the five major world religions.
7 – W3.2.2 Locate the geographical center of major religions and map the spread through the 3rd century C.E./A.D.
7 – W3.2.3 Identify and describe the ways that religions unified people’s perceptions of the world and contributed to cultural integration of large regions of Afro-Eurasia.
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