G5 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETy Explain that the physical environment is modified by human activities, which are influenced by the ways in which human societies value and use Earth’s natural resources, and by Earth’s physical features and processes. Explain how human action modifies the physical environment and how physical systems affect human systems. G5.1 Humans and the Environment Describe how human actions modify the environment. 6 – G5.1.1 Describe the environmental effects of human action on the atmosphere (air), biosphere (people, animals, and plants), lithosphere (soil), and hydrosphere (water) (e.g., changes in the tropical forest environments in Brazil, Peru, and Costa Rica). 6 – G5.1.2 Describe how variations in technology affect human modifications of the landscape (e.g., clearing forests for agricultural land in South America, fishing in the Grand Banks of the Atlantic, expansion of cities in South America, hydroelectric developments in Canada, Brazil and Chile, and mining the Kentucky and West Virginia). 6 – G5.1.3 Identify the ways in which human-induced changes in the physical environment in one place can cause changes in other places (e.g., cutting forests in one region may result in river basin flooding elsewhere; building a dam floods land upstream and may permit irrigation in another region). G5.2 Physical and Human Systems Describe how physical and human systems shape patterns on the Earth’s surface. 6– G5.2.1 Describe the effects that a change in the physical environment could have on human activities and the choices people would have to make in adjusting to the change (e.g., drought in northern Mexico, disappearance of forest vegetation in the Amazon, natural hazards and disasters from volcanic eruptions in Central America and the Caribbean and earthquakes in Mexico City and Colombia).